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What is nuclear?

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the kernel has the following meanings:

1. The hard part of the fruit that contains the kernel, such as peach kernel and apricot kernel

2. Things like nucleus, such as nuclear cell, nucleic acid and core (Center)

3. Carefully compare and investigate, such as verification, calculation and verification

4. Abbreviation of atomic nucleus, nuclear weapon. Nuclear weapons are weapons that use the huge energy released instantaneously by nuclear fission or fusion reaction that can be carried out by self-sustaining, produce explosion and have the effect of mass destruction

related group words

1, nuclear explosion

Pinyin: H é B à o zh à

interpretation: refers to an explosion of energy produced by nuclear fission or fusion

2. NMR

Pinyin: H é C í g ò ng zh è n

interpretation: in a static magnetic field, a phenomenon shown by a large number of atomic nuclei that absorb energy from RF fields of certain characteristic frequencies. As a result of spatial quantization, the atomic response to some discrete radiation frequencies

3. Nuclear warhead

Pinyin: H é D à n t ó U

interpretation: refers to warheads containing nuclear fission material or nuclear fusion material

4. Nuclear blackmail

Pinyin: H é zh à

Intimidating a nuclear weapon

nucleus and its mechanism]

1 Composition of atoms
atoms are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. All matter in the world is made up of atoms. Any atom is made up of positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons rotating around the nuclei. A uranium-235 atom has 92 electrons and its nucleus consists of 92 protons and 143 neutrons. Half a million atoms are arranged equal to the diameter of a hair. If the atom is compared to a huge palace, its nucleus is only the size of a soybean, and the electron is equivalent to the tip of a pin. A 1 million kilowatt thermal power plant burns about 3.3 million tons of coal every year and needs to be transported by many trains. Nuclear power plants with the same capacity use only 30 tons of fuel a year

2. Structure of atomic nucleus
atomic nucleus is generally composed of protons and neutrons. The simplest hydrogen atomic nucleus has only one proton. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus (i.e. atomic number) determines what element the atom belongs to. The sum of the number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the atom

3. Nuclear energy
more than 50 years ago, scientists found that the nucleus of uranium-235 can split after absorbing one neutron, and release 2-3 neutrons and a large amount of energy at the same time. The energy released is much greater than that released in chemical reaction. This is nuclear fission energy, which is what we call nuclear energy
the atomic bomb uses the energy released by nuclear fission to kill and destroy, and the nuclear reactor also uses this principle to obtain energy. The difference is that it can be controlled

4. Light nuclear fusion
two lighter nuclei polymerize into a heavier nucleus and release huge energy at the same time. This reaction is called light nuclear fusion. It is one of the important ways to obtain nuclear energy. In the interior of stars such as the sun, due to extremely high pressure and temperature, light nuclei have enough kinetic energy to overcome electrostatic repulsion and undergo continuous fusion. Self sustaining nuclear fusion reaction must be carried out under extremely high pressure and temperature, so it is called “thermonuclear fusion reaction”
hydrogen bomb uses the fusion reaction of deuterium tritium nuclei to instantly release huge energy to kill and destroy. The controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction device under research also applies this basic principle. The biggest difference between it and hydrogen bomb is that its released energy can be controlled

5. Characteristics of uranium and its energy release
uranium is the element with the largest atomic number in nature. Natural uranium is composed of several isotopes: except for 0.71% uranium-235 (235 is the mass number) and trace uranium-234, the rest is uranium-238. The energy released by complete nuclear fission of uranium-235 is 2700000 times that released by complete combustion of the same amount of coal. In other words, the energy released by the complete fission of 1 gram of U-235 is equivalent to the energy released by the complete combustion of 2 tons and a half of high-quality coal

6. How to release nuclear energy
there are two main ways to obtain nuclear energy, namely heavy nuclear fission and light nuclear fusion. U-235 has a characteristic that when a neutron bombards its nucleus, it can split into two smaller nuclei and produce 2-3 neutrons and electrons at the same time β、γ And release about 200 MeV of energy
If a newly generated neutron bombards another uranium-235 nucleus, it will cause new fission, and so on. In this way, the fission reaction will continue. This is the fission chain reaction, in which the nuclear energy will be released continuously

7. The release of fusion energy
the same amount of light nuclear fusion as uranium releases several times more energy than uranium. For example, the energy produced by the complete reaction of 1 gram of lithium deuterate (Li-6) is about three times that of the fission energy of 1 gram of uranium-235. The conditions to realize nuclear fusion are very harsh, that is, it is necessary to keep the hydrogen nucleus at a high temperature of more than tens of millions of degrees in order to make a considerable nucleus have kinetic energy to realize the polymerization reaction

8. Nuclear energy is the energy for sustainable development
the proven uranium reserves in the world are about 4.9 million tons and thorium reserves are about 2.75 million tons. These fissile fuels will be enough for the era of fusion energy. The fusion fuel is mainly deuterium and lithium. The content of deuterium in seawater is 0.034 g /L. it is estimated that the total water volume on the earth is about 13.8 billion cubic meters, including about 40 trillion tons of deuterium and more than 200 billion tons of lithium on the earth. Lithium can be used to produce tritium, which is enough for human use in fusion energy generation. According to the current level of world energy consumption, deuterium and tritium available for nuclear fusion on earth can be used by mankind for hundreds of billions of years. Therefore, some energy experts believe that as long as nuclear fusion technology is solved, mankind will fundamentally solve the energy problem

9. Nuclear fission
nuclear fission is the change of an atomic nucleus splitting into several atomic nuclei. Only some nuclei with very high mass, such as uranium and thorium, can undergo nuclear fission. After absorbing a neutron, the nuclei of these atoms will split into two or more nuclei with smaller mass. At the same time, they will release two or three neutrons and a lot of energy, which can make other nuclei undergo nuclear fission… And keep the process going. This process is called chain reaction. When nuclear fission occurs, the atomic nucleus releases huge energy, which is called atomic nuclear energy, commonly known as atomic energy. The energy released after complete nuclear fission of 1 gram of uranium 235 is equivalent to the energy produced by burning 2.5 tons of coal. The fission process is quite complex. 35 elements and more than 200 radionuclides have been found in fission products

10. Utilization of nuclear energy
“on December 2, 1942, mankind realized the first self-sustaining bond reaction here, thus starting the controlled release of nuclear energy.” This is the birth certificate of the atomic age. This passage is written on the outer wall of an abandoned playground at the University of Chicago. The first atomic react
or made by humans was born in the tennis court under the bleachers of the playground. The leader of this project is Italian physicist Enrico Fermi
in December 1941, at the suggestion of Einstein and other scientists, US President Roosevelt approved the plan called “Manhattan Project”, which was to go all out to develop the atomic bomb before Hitler. During five years from 1941 to 1945, 500000 people and 150000 scientists and engineers were mobilized at a cost of US $2 billion, accounting for one third of the electricity in the United States. The actual manufacture of the atomic bomb was completed at the end of 1943 under the leadership of Oppenheimer, a scientist later known as the “father of the atomic bomb”. On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was successfully tested. On August 6 and 9, the US government dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, forcing Japanese imperialism to surrender
due to the great destructive power of the atomic bomb, it has become an important strategic weapon during the cold war, and countries are competing to develop it. In 1949, the former Soviet Union exploded a nuclear bomb five times larger than the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Hiroshima. In 1964, China successfully exploded its first atomic bomb. According to the materials released by the United Nations, there were more than 50000 nuclear warheads in the world at that time, with an explosion equivalent of about 15 billion tons of TNT explosive. Each person in the world was subject to a nuclear threat equivalent to 3 tons of TNT explosive. Therefore, some people called the atomic bomb “the invention of destroying the earth”
after the Second World War, nuclear energy began to be used for peace. In June 1954, the former Soviet Union built the world’s first atomic power station. Although it had only 5000 kilowatts of power, it opened a new era for mankind’s peaceful use of nuclear energy. As a new energy, nuclear power generation has attracted the attention of countries all over the world. Over the past 40 years, the history of world nuclear power development has proved that nuclear power is an economical, clean and safe energy. The combined cost of power stations is 38% higher than that of nuclear power stations. The cost of nuclear power in France is only 52% of that of coal-fired thermal power. Coal-fired thermal power plants will emit a large amount of pollutants into the atmosphere, while nuclear power plants will not emit any pollutants. By 1995, a total of 432 nuclear power plants in the world were operating for power generation, and there were only two radioactive material leakage accidents, which were caused by operational errors. Since the accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union in 1988, countries all over the world have no longer used their unsafe graphite reactors, and increased containment safeguards. China’s nuclear power plants use more advanced pressurized water reactors. Therefore, nuclear power plants are safer and more reliable than before
according to statistics in 1991, nuclear power has accounted for 16% of the world’s total power generation. Among the countries in the world, France has the fastest development of nuclear power plants, with 57 nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 62 million KW, and nuclear power accounts for 77.8% of the total power generation. At present, Zhejiang Qinshan nuclear power station and Shenzhen Daya Bay nuclear power station have been put into power generation in China. In the future, China will build four nuclear power stations to make the total amount of nuclear power reach 20 million KW by 2010

[nuclear weapons]

nuclear weapons are also called atomic weapons, usually referring to atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs. Hydrogen bomb is also called thermonuclear weapon. In recent years, the medium bullet has appeared. It is a small hydrogen bomb. Whether atomic bomb, hydrogen bomb or neutron bomb, they are weapons that use the huge energy released at the moment of nuclear fission or fusion reaction to kill and destroy people and various targets

1. Atomic bomb

it is mainly a nuclear weapon made by fission chain reaction using fissile materials such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 as fuel. At first, the fissile material is made into a nuclear fuel block in a subcritical state, and then the fuel block is instantaneously supercritical with chemical explosives, and a number of neutrons are provided by a neutron source in time to trigger the fission chain reaction to produce nuclear explosion

2. Hydrogen bomb

it is mainly a nuclear weapon made by using the thermonuclear fusion reaction principle of light atomic nuclei such as deuterium and tritium
in order to produce self sustained thermonuclear reaction, the conditions of high temperature and high density must be met. At present, this condition can only be realized by atomic bomb explosion. Therefore, the hydrogen bomb must contain two parts: primary and secondary. The primary is the initiation device designed to create self-sustaining thermal nuclear reaction conditions, that is, the chain reaction device of nuclear fission. Fission explosion releases energy to make nuclear fusion material

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